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OECD Primer on Dyslexia

McArthur GM, Ellis D, Atkinson CM, Coltheart M. “Auditory processing deficits in children with reading and language impairments: can they (and should they) be treated?” Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia via PubMed.

    AB: Sixty-five children with specific reading disability (SRD), 25 children with specific language impairment (SLI), and 37 age-matched controls were tested for their frequency discrimination, rapid auditory processing, vowel discrimination, and consonant-vowel discrimination. Subgroups of children with SRD or SLI produced abnormal frequency discrimination (42%), rapid auditory processing (12%), vowel discrimination (23%), or consonant-vowel discrimination (18%) thresholds for their age. Twenty-eight of these children trained on a programme that targeted their specific auditory processing deficit for 6 weeks. Twenty-five of these 28 trainees produced normal thresholds for their targeted processing skill after training. These gains were not explained by gains in auditory attention, in the ability to do psychophysical tasks in general, or by test-retest effects. The 25 successful trainees also produced significantly higher scores on spoken language and spelling tests after training. However, an untrained control group showed test-retest effects on the same tests. These results suggest that auditory processing deficits can be treated successfully in children with SRD and SLI but that this does not help them acquire new reading, spelling, or spoken language skills.

Gersons-Wolfensberger, D. C. M. & Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M. “Definition and Treatment of Dyslexia: A Report by the Committee on Dyslexia of the Health Council of the NetherlandsJournal of Learning Disabilities March/April 1997 vol. 30 no. 2 pp. 209-213

Poljac E, Simon S, Ringlever L, Kalcik D, Groen WB, Buitelaar JK, Bekkering H. “Impaired task switching performance in children with dyslexia but not in children with autism.” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (Colchester). 2010 Feb;63(2):401-16. Epub 2009 Jun 29. (PubMed accessed: 3/6/2011.)
– From Abstract: “…The main ?nding was that while similar switching performance was observed between children with autism and the healthy controls, children with dyslexia showed a signi?cant switch-speci?c delay relative to both healthy controls and children with autism. Furthermore, no de?cit in restarting performance was observed for any of the two patient groups. Finally, additional evidence is provided for a more general de?cit in information processing in dyslexia…”

Firth, Nola. “A Resilient Response to Dyslexia/Specific Learning Disabilities: International Best Practice Environments and Programs” [online]. Australian Journal of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties, Vol. 5, Spring/Summer 2010: 3-11. Availability: ISSN: 1833-833X. [cited 29 Apr 11].

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Hynd, G.W. and Semrud-Clikeman, M. 1989. “Dyslexia and brain morphology.” Psychological Bulletin 106:447-82.

Johannes, S., Kussmaul, C.L., Munte, T.F. and Mangun, G.R. 1996. “Developmental dyslexia: Passive visual stimulation probides no evidence for a magnocellular processing defect.” Neuropsychologia 34:1123-1127.

Larsen, J., Hoein, T., Lundberg, L. and Odegaard, H. 1990. “MRI evaluation of the size and symmetry of the planum temporale in adolescents with developmental dyslexia.” Brain and Language 39:289-301.

Livingstone, M., Rosen, G., Drislane, F. and Galaburda, A. 1991. “Physiological and anatomical evidence for a magnocellular defect in developmental dyslexia.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (USA) 88:7943-7947.

Lyon, G.R., D.B., Kavanagh, J.F. et al. (eds) 1993. Better understanding learning disabilities: New views from research and their implications for education and public policies. Baltimore: Brookes

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McPherson, W.B., Ackerman, P.T., Holcomb, P.J. and Dykman, R.A. 1998. “Event-related brain potentials elicited during phonological processing differentiate subgroups of reading disabled adolescents.” Brain and Language 62:163-85.

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Pennington, B.F., Smith, S.D., Kimberling, W.J., Green, P.A. and Haith, M.M. 1987. “Left-handedness and immune disorders in familial dyslexics.” Archives of Neurology 44:634-639.

Rae, C., Lee, M.A., Dixon, R.M., Blamire, A.M., Thompson, C.H., Styles, P., Talcott, J., Richardson, A.J. and Stein, J.F. 1998. “Metabolic abnormalities in developmental dyslexia detected by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.” Lancet 351:1849-52.

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Shaywitz, S.E., Shaywitz, B.A., Pugh, K.R., Fulbright, R.K., Constable, R.T., Menci, W.E., Shankweiller, D.P., Liberman, A.M., Skudlarski, P., Fletcher, J.M., Katz, L., Marchione, K.E., Lacadie, C., Gatenby, C. and Gore, J.C. 1998. “Functional disruption in the organization of the brain for reading in dyslexia.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (USA) 95:2636-41.

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